author = {Keith Winstein},
  title = {Lexical Steganography Through Adaptive Modulation
    of the Word Choice Hash},
  month = {January},
  year = {1999},
  url = {http://alumni.imsa.edu/~keithw/tlex/lsteg.ps},
  note = {Was disseminated during secondary education at the Illinois
    Mathematics and Science Academy. The paper won the third prize in the
    2000 Intel Science Talent Search.},
  abstract = {Steganography provides for the embedding of information in a
    block of host data in conditions where perceptible modification of the
    host data is intolerable. Steganographic techniques are highly dependent
    on the character of the host data; a technique for embedding information
    in images might make subtle changes in hue, while a method for embedding
    information in audio data could exploit the limitations of the human ear
    by encoding the encapsulated information in inaudible frequency ranges.
    Current implementations of textual steganography exploit tolerances in
    typesetting by making minute changes in line placement and kerning in
    order to encapsulate hidden information, making them vulnerable to simple
    retypesetting attacks. This paper defines a framework for lexical
    steganography and discusses the details of an implementation.}
  author = {Hiroshi Nakagawa and Kouji Sampei and Tsutomu Matsumoto and Shuji
    Kawaguchi and Kyoto Makino and Ichiro Murase},
  institution = {Information Technology Center, University of Tokyo, Japan},
  title = {Text information hiding with preserved meaning
    -- A case for Japanese documents},
  journal = {IPSJ Transaction},
  volume = {42},
  number = {9},
  pages = {2339 - 2350},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {Digital fingerprinting is being paid growing attention as a
    technology resolving copyright problems. Previously, researchers have
    only been interested in image based digital fingerprinting where secret
    information is hidden in images, as opposed to our the method we will
    put forward herein, which uses text. It is based on a paraphrasing method
    that is supposed to preserve meaning of the original contents. We
    experimentally evaluated the proposed method with Japanese manuals and
    user agreement forms of software, and found the paraphrased text is
    preserving the meaning of the original contents and closely mimics natural
  note = {originally published in Japanese. A similar paper was disseminated
    by the first author in English and is kept available for download from
  author = {Adam J. Tenenbaum},
  title = {Linguistic Steganography:
    Passing Covert Data Using Text-Based Mimicry},
  howpublished = {final year thesis},
  month = {April},
  year = {2002},
  note = {submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
    for the degree of {``Bachelor of Applied Science''} to the
    University of Toronto.},
  url = {http://www.comm.utoronto.ca/~adam/downloads/AJTBAScThesis.pdf},
  abstract = {The goal of linguistic steganography systems is to transmit a
    secret message over an open communication channel while concealing the
    presence of the secret message altogether. The secret message is hidden
    by encoding its bits within a ``cover'' message that mimics natural
    language. Existing text mimicry algorithms are flawed in that there
    exists a tradeoff between the quality of the output text and the resources
    required to manually design an appropriate grammar for the content of the
    cover message.

    In Peter Wayner's basic mimicry algorithm, the system learns from
    frequency analysis of a ``training source'' in order to attempt to mimic
    the source. This thesis improves upon Wayner's algorithm by changing the
    ``atom'' in frequency analysis from a single character to a single word.
    The resulting linguistic steganography algorithm generates a cover text
    that more closely resembles the style of the training source but also
    mimics the grammar of the source text in a dynamic, automated fashion.}
  author = {Michiharu Niimi and Sayaka Minewaki and Hideki Noda
    and Eiji Kawaguchi},
  institution = {Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan},
  title = {A Framework of Text-based Steganography
    Using SD-Form Semantics Model},
  journal = {IPSJ Journal},
  volume = {44},
  number = {8},
  month = {August},
  year = {2003},
  url = {http://www.know.comp.kyutech.ac.jp/
  abstract = {This paper describes a framework of text-base steganography in
    consideration of the meaning of natural language sentences. To deal with
    the meaning of sentences, this method uses SD-Form Semantics Model that
    has been developed by the authors. In the model, sentences are described
    by the form named SD-Form. An SD-Form is assigned an amount of semantic
    information. The amount of the meaning of sentences is used to carry
    secret information on text data. In embedding secret information,
    sentences are transformed to SD-Forms and then the amount of semantic
    information of SD-Forms is decreased or increased to coincide with the
    value of the secret information. We show methods to decrease or increase
    the amount of the meaning of SD-Forms.}
  author = {Yuei-Lin Chiang and Lu-Ping Chang and Wen-Tai Hsieh
    and Wen-Chih Chen},
  institution = {Advanced e-Commerce Technology Laboratory,
    Institute for Information Industry, Taipei, Taiwan},
  title = {Natural Language Watermarking Using Semantic Substitution
    for Chinese Text},
  booktitle = {Digital Watermarking:
    Second International Workshop, IWDW 2003},
  editor = {Ton Kalker and Ingemar J. Cox and Yong Man Ro},
  location = {Seoul, Korea},
  month = {October},
  year = {2003},
  publisher = {Springer},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {2939},
  pages = {129--140},
  isbn = {3-540-21061-X},
  doi = {10.1007/b95658},
  abstract = {Numerous schemes have been designed for watermarking multimedia
    contents. Many of these schemes are vulnerable to watermark erasing
    attacks. Naturally, such methods are ineffective on text unless the text
    is represented as a bitmap image, but in that case, the watermark can be
    erased easily by using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to change the
    representation of the text from a bitmap to ASCII or EBCDIC. This study
    attempts to develop a method for embedding watermark in the text that is
    as successful as the frequency-domain methods have been for image and
    audio. The novel method embeds the watermark in original text, creating
    ciphertext, which preserves the meaning of the original text via various
    semantic replacements.}
  author = {Xingming Sun and Gang Luo and Huajun Huang},
  title = {Component-based digital watermarking of Chinese texts},
  booktitle = {InfoSecu '04:
    Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Information security},
  year = {2004},
  isbn = {1-58113-955-1},
  pages = {76--81},
  location = {Shanghai, China},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1046290.1046306},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  abstract = {According to the types of the host media, digital watermarking
    may be classified mainly as image watermarking, video watermarking, audio
    watermarking, and text watermarking. The principle of the three
    watermarking research fields are similar in that they make use of the
    redundant information of their host media and the characteristics of human
    video system or human audio system. Unfortunately, text has no redundant
    information. Text watermarking techniques are totally different from them.
    And text watermarking algorithm is very difficult to satisfy the
    requirements of transparence and robustness. In this paper, a novel text
    watermarking algorithm based on the thought of the mathematical expression
    will be presented. Since watermarking signals are embedded into some
    Chinese characters that can be divided into left and right components,
    this algorithm is totally based on the content. Therefore, it breaks
    through the difficulties of text watermarking. Experiments also show that
    the component-based text watermarking technique is relatively robust and
    transparent. It will play an important role in protecting the security of
    Chinese documents over Internet.}
  author = {Ozlem Uzuner},
  title = {Natural language processing with linguistic information for digital
    fingerprinting and watermarking},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SPIE International Conference on Security,
    Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents},
  year = {2006},
  month = {January},
  location = {San Jose, CA}
  author = {V. Chand and C. O. Orgun},
  title = {Exploiting Linguistic Features in Lexical Steganography:
    Design and Proof-of-Concept Implementation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference
    on System Sciences (HICSS '06)},
  year = {2006},
  month = {January},
  isbn = {0-7695-2507-5},
  issn = {1530-1605},
  doi = {10.1109/HICSS.2006.175},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {126b},
  location = {Hawaii},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  abstract = {This paper develops a linguistically robust encryption, LUNABEL,
    which converts a message into semantically innocuous text. Drawing upon
    linguistic criteria, LUNABEL uses word replacement, with substitution
    classes based on traditional word replacement features (syntactic
    categories and sub-categories), as well as features under-exploited in
    earlier works: semantic criteria, graphotactic structure, inflectional
    class and frequency statistics. The original message is further hidden
    through the use of cover texts — within these, LUNABEL retains all function
    words and targets specific classes of content words for replacement,
    creating text which preserves the syntactic structure and semantic context
    of the original cover text. LUNABEL takes advantage of cover text styles
    which are not expected to be necessarily comprehensible to the general
    public, making any semantic anomalies more opaque. This line of work has
    the promise of creating encrypted texts which are less detectable than
    earlier steganographic efforts.}
  author = {M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza and Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza},
  title = {A New Approach to Persian/Arabic Text Steganography},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on
    Computer and Information Science},
  year = {2006},
  isbn = {0-7695-2613-6},
  pages = {310--315},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIS-COMSAR.2006.10},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  address = {Washington, DC, USA},
  abstract = {Conveying information secretly and establishing hidden
    relationship has been of interest since long past. Text documents have
    been widely used since very long time ago. Therefore, we have witnessed
    different method of hiding information in texts (text steganography) since
    past to the present. In this paper we introduce a new approach for
    steganography in Persian and Arabic texts. Considering the existence of
    too many points in Persian and Arabic phrases, in this approach, by
    vertical displacement of the points, we hide information in the texts.
    This approach can be categorized under feature coding methods. This method
    can be used for Persian/Arabic Watermarking. Our method has been
    implemented by JAVA programming language.}
  author = {B. Macq and O. Vybornova},
  title = {A method of text watermarking using presuppositions},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SPIE International Conference on Security,
    Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents},
  year = {2007},
  month = {January},
  location = {San Jose, CA}